This perspective outlines benefits and risks of health plan standardization, raises critical questions that states will need to consider, and offers a decision roadmap for states implementing a standardized benefit design requirement.
This blog from the Delta Center illustrates five key insights related to program design and evaluation from the productive partnership between the Partnership HealthPlan of California (PHC) and local community health centers (CHCs) to create a care coordination (CCM) program.
This issue brief draws from the experiences of states that were among the first to implement their substance use disorder waivers to profile how the American Society for Addiction Medicine (ASAM) Criteria is used within the context of managed care and utilization review, and the challenges and best practices associated with its use.
This interview with Veenu Aulakh, Center for Care Innovations president, touches on the organization’s approach to human-centered design and how they collaborate with patients, staff, and other stakeholders in successfully redesigning care while also telling a meaningful story to the community.
This report investigates what is motivating states to transition to full state-based marketplace status, assesses the benefits and risks of such a switch, and identifies considerations for other states considering a similar move.
This issue brief examines how state Medicaid agencies, families, advocates, providers and other stakeholders can partner to improve access to services for Medicaid-enrolled children with special health care needs.
This report explores what child care challenges parents with Medicaid work requirements may face, and suggests parents may struggle to find care that is affordable, good quality, accessible, and available for nontraditional or unpredictable work schedules.
This brief explores state variation in health insurance coverage changes during implementation of the primary health insurance coverage reforms of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) using data from the 2013 and 2017 American Community Survey.
This brief describes interviews with 10 Medicare Advantage plans, Medicare Advantage experts, and social service providers to discuss new benefits added under the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' increased flexibility in plan year 2019.
This report updates previous analysis of the coverage and health spending implications of Healthy America and analyzes two additional options: one without an individual requirement and one that would lead to universal coverage for all legal residents of the US.
This webinar reviewed the Department of Homeland Security's final version of its public charge rule, highlighted changes from the proposed rule, and explored the rule’s potential impacts on consumers, states and providers.
This blog outlines how states like Oregon and Connecticut go beyond federal requirements to ensure that hospital community benefit spending is substantial, meets community needs, and addresses state goals in exchange for tax exemptions.
This report shares insights from in-depth interviews with 25 adults in immigrant families who reported that they or a family member avoided participating in safety net programs like Medicaid, SNAP, or housing assistance in 2018 because of immigration concerns.
This report assesses public support for Medicare for All proposals, as well as some incremental reforms for expanding health insurance coverage, using data from the March 2019 round of the Health Reform Monitoring Survey.
This report examines a potential reform to Medicare that would simplify coverage for fee-for-service beneficiaries; streamline cost-sharing obligations for Medicare Parts A, B, and D; and create an out-of-pocket maximum.
In this blog, two former state medicaid directors demystify the distinct yet complementary roles of public health and health care — and how these state agencies can align efforts around prevention strategies to impact health and costs.
This brief examines the prevalence of precarious work schedules among working adults whose families participate in federal safety net programs, using data from the December 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey.
This interview features two physicians who participated in planning New Jersey’s statewide office-based addiction treatment program and their experiences treating addiction within primary and specialty care settings.
This webinar highlights how two providers operating in vastly different settings have incorporated a trauma-informed approach to care into their day-to-day practices for treating substance use disorder.
This study assesses potential barriers facing Medicaid enrollees in meeting work requirements through employment on a sustained basis, using pooled data from the September 2018 and March 2019 Health Reform Monitoring Survey.
This resource calculates the cost of lead exposure in states, and computes the economic benefits of specific policies and programs, from replacing lead drinking water service lines to eradicating lead paint hazards in older homes.
This report uses data from the December 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey to provide systematic evidence on the extent of chilling effects among immigrant families before release of a final public charge rule.
State policymakers have more flexibility than ever to advance health-promoting policies and programs, and showcase effective strategies from which other states—and the nation as a whole—might learn. RWJF helps inform these efforts through research and analysis, technical assistance and training, and advocacy.
States can work to make sure hospitals truly seek out and act on meaningful input from a wide range of community representatives — not just community members on a hospital’s board or leaders from high-profile community groups.
This study analyzes three programs that use non-traditional workforce strategies to extend the reach of their clinics to better engage complex patients in their homes, at medical appointments, and other locations.
Several states are developing accountable health models to improve health and control costs by addressing health-related community needs, such as transportation, recreation, and housing. This brief examines their organizational and governance structures.
This analysis examines some of the consequences should a case pending before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit be decided in favor of the plaintiffs, who argue that the entire Affordable Care Act (ACA) be eliminated.
This issue brief looks at progress made in using multi-payer claims databases for various strategic purposes, and offers considerations for states seeking to optimize claims databases to improve health care system performance improvement.
This article estimates the costs of implementing state-based reinsurance programs in four large states whose size provides a useful cost-projection base for other state policymakers considering reinsurance programs.
This commentary explores a series of case studies and tools developed after a national scan of promising HC/CBO partnerships that examine the operational, financial, and strategic components of successful partnerships.
The annual County Health Rankings measure vital health factors, including high school graduation rates, obesity, smoking, unemployment, access to healthy foods, the quality of air and water, income inequality, and teen births in nearly every county in America.
This report examines monitoring and evaluation of work/CE demonstrations and reviews the data assets and infrastructure necessary to support states and their researcher partners in robust monitoring and evaluation efforts.
This resource compares national and state-by-state data on the well-being of infants and toddlers, and provides national and state-level data to help advance policies to improve the lives of babies and families.
Eight states will join Aligning Early Childhood and Medicaid, a multi-state initiative aimed at improving the health and social outcomes of low-income infants, young children, and families through cross-agency collaboration.
This commentary provides a brief background on the recent litigation surrounding cost sharing reductions, including executive actions, and state and insurer responses, as well as what could happen next.
This brief reviews the role that social and economic factors--such as housing, healthy food, and income--play in a “whole person” approach to health care, especially among Medicaid’s low-income enrollees.
This brief reviews the growing body of research on Medicaid's health and economic impacts, including access to care; self-reported health status; preventive health screenings; delaying care because of costs; hospital and ED utilization; and mortality rates.
This brief outlines the basics of the Medicaid program, including financing and eligibility, for new state policymakers in order to lay the groundwork for considering the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.
This brief highlights priority issues for consideration and potential action, including: the structure of the Medicaid agency; enabling coverage and access; addressing the needs of special populations; and value-based payment policies.
The percentage of the U.S. population that made changes to drugs due to cost has been relatively stable over time at the national level, but there are substantial differences by state and significant disparities exist between age groups and types of insurance coverage.
This brief explores opportunities to better address patients’ non-medical needs, including: identifying non-medical needs; employing non-traditional workers; partnering with community-based organizations/agencies; testing new technologies; and identifying funding.
This analysis examines the use of 1332 State Innovations Waivers to stabilize individual health insurance markets, comparing the use of this strategy in three states; assessing how they navigated the process; identifying lessons learned; and discussing future concerns.
This project encourages state, local, and national level organizations to include health considerations in policy decisions across multiple sectors, such as housing, transportation, and education. Research shows that the conditions in which people live, learn, work, and play influence their health, so the project also works to create cross-sector partnerships that include the expertise of health care and public health systems.
The National Equity Atlas is a comprehensive data resource to track, measure, and make the case for inclusive growth. It includes data on changing demographics, racial inclusion, and the economic benefits of equity—at city, region, state, and nationwide levels.
This tool helps identify policies and programs that are a good fit for community priorities. Analysts review and assess research to rate the effectiveness of a broad variety of strategies (i.e., policies, programs, systems & environmental changes) that can affect health through changes to: health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment.
These infographics show how each state's overdose rates compare to the national average, provide a high-level comparison of all 50 states' overdose death rates broken down by each of the five drug types, and highlight key findings for trends in drug overdose deaths from 2000-2017,
The Urban Institute conducted interviews with marketplace administrators and insurers selling marketplace coverage in ten states. They analyze marketplace insurer participation and pricing decisions, as well as several related topics.
This report outlines the activities of three pilot sites pursuing Medicaid-driven strategies to support young children and their families, to help inform other cross-sector partnerships at varying stages of development.
New provisional CDC data suggests opioid-related overdose deaths in the U.S. may be slowing, leveling out or dropping slightly. The opioid crisis varies across states, requiring state-level data to effectively respond.
This case study explores how Indiana’s Family and Social Services Administration is working to rethink how to optimize the integration and delivery of health and social services for Medicaid beneficiaries.
This webinar discusses the implications of the proposed regulations easing the rules governing health reimbursement arrangements (HRA) and other account-based, tax-preferred health care benefits; and possible state responses.
Alaska, Minnesota and Oregon were the first to gain approval and federal funding to implement their own reinsurance programs under a 1332 waiver. This issue brief assesses their progress and lessons learned to date.
Data from the 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) show that many of the remaining uninsured are clustered in metropolitan areas; this map illustrates those geographic concentrations of the uninsured.
The Senate passed H.R. 6, The Substance Use Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (the “SUPPORT Act”) on October 3, 2018. This reviews major health provisions of the new law and implications for states.
Using data from the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey, this report assesses whether coverage gains from 2010 to 2016 were associated with changes in labor market outcomes across occupations.
The Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) proposed rule, Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds, proposes significant changes to how it will determine whether an immigrant is likely to become a “public charge” including, for the first time, the use of Medicaid benefits as a key factor in that analysis.This resource answers popular questions about the rule.
This technical assistance tool shares criteria used by innovative organizations that are identifying individuals for their complex care programs, to help others develop or refine eligibility criteria for complex care management programs.
This resource highlights articles published since January 2018 that report on the impact of Medicaid expansion in 33 states and DC, organized by health access and outcomes, economic impacts, and coverage impacts.
This State Health Policy Highlight profiles three State Health and Value Strategies issue briefs that provide states with practical approaches to improve individual and population health and create joint accountability across health care and other sectors.
This report explores changes in coverage type between 2013 and 2016 overall and for key demographic and income subgroups. Between 2013 and 2016, the share of Americans ages 64 and younger without health insurance fell from 17 percent to 10 percent.
This brief examines changes in health insurance coverage and health care access and affordability for parents and their children between 2013 and 2018 using data from the Health Reform Monitoring Survey.
New health insurance coverage estimates from the American Community Survey show that there was a statistically significant 0.2 percentage point increase in the national uninsured rate between 2016 and 2017, for the first year since 2010. This graphic analyzes the data.
The Minnesota State Employee Group Insurance Program has covered Minnesota state employees and their dependents using a tiered provider model since 2002. A recent SHARE-funded analysis examined the tiering model as well as patient and clinic responses to this tiered provider network approach.
Recognizing an unmet need for toiletries and household products among clients, AccessHealth Spartanburg stocks a closet where eligible clients can “shop” for items. This builds trusting relationships between clients and staff and meets basic client needs.
This webinar featured the use of admissions, discharge, and transfer (ADT) data feeds to coordinate care for patients with behavioral health and other complex care issues in Tennessee and Washington. It provided lessons learned, including operational and financing strategies, linkages to quality metrics and outcomes, and alignment with other statewide payment and delivery system efforts.
This report highlights the latest obesity trends as well as strategies, policies, programs, and practices that can reverse the epidemic. The report also details the level of commitment necessary to effectively fight obesity on a large scale and includes key recommendations for specific actions.
The Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey (WBNS) monitors changes in health and well-being at a time when policymakers seek significant changes to programs that help low-income families pay for basic needs. Most indicators based on data from the WBNS are reasonably consistent with measures from larger federal surveys.
As federal and state policymakers weigh changes to federal programs that help low-income people meet their basic needs for food, medical care and shelter, they run the risk of increasing material hardship, which could have detrimental short- and long-term impacts on children and adults.
This report provides detailed estimates of changes in health insurance coverage types between 2013 and 2016 by demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics. In addition, state fact sheets detail coverage changes by income group in all 50 states and DC.
This chart compares the social determinants 11 states targeted in their Medicaid contracts and contract guidance documents to enhance population health, as well as how states monitored outcomes and funded these efforts.
CMS approved state work/community engagement (CE) waivers in Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, and New Hampshire; and additional states have submitted or are poised to submit similar waivers. This series of charts outlines the legal, policy, financial and operational tasks and issues that states will face in adding a work/CE condition to their Medicaid program.
The Trump administration finalized regulations for short-term limited duration policies in early August 2018, which increase the maximum length of short-term, limited-duration insurance policies to just less than one year. This report provides updated tables taking these state legislative changes into account.
This report examines brokers’ evolving role in the individual market, consumer purchasing decisions, and brokers’ observations about how the market and consumers are responding to recent federal policy adjustments to the ACA.
This report investigates the work patterns of Medicaid beneficiaries in Kentucky who are are potentially subject to Medicaid work requirements. It finds that the structure of Kentucky’s Medicaid waiver does not seem to align with the reality of some working enrollees’ lives, and that working enrollees losing coverage may not have access to an employer plan.
This report explores options for states as they consider oversight of risk-bearing organizations (RBOs), with a focus on states that have elected to act to protect against provider insolvency. The State Health Policy Highlight reviews specific state considerations when overseeing RBOs; case studies examine approaches in California, Massachusetts, New York and Texas.
This webinar reviews the Stewart v. Azar decision and potential implications for states with approved, pending or planned Medicaid waivers that include work/community engagement requirements. The court’s findings may shape what analysis will be necessary to demonstrate that future waivers advance the Medicaid statute's objectives.
This report provides a compilation of data on equity goals and progress for 28 measures of health, socioeconomic factors, physical and social environment, and access to health care. Each measure is presented by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the nation.
The ACA has made considerable gains in health insurance coverage, but many remain uninsured. This is an update to a 2015 analysis of the characteristics of the remaining uninsured, focusing on people uninsured in 2017 as well as how the characteristics of this population have changed.
This report examines the United States opioid epidemic at the state-level, analyzing trends in overdose deaths from heroin and other opioids. Using vital statistics data, it looks at which states have the highest rates of opioid-related deaths and which have experienced the largest increases in death rates.
To understand the marketplace enrollment gains and losses observed in 2018 relative to 2017, the Urban Institute interviewed key stakeholders in Rhode Island, Washington, and New York, which saw marketplace enrollment increases, and in West Virginia and Louisiana, which saw enrollment drops. This report explains the different features of the five states, presents cross-state findings, and discusses important factors in next year’s open enrollment period.
This webinar provided an overview of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 6|18 Initiative and highlighted recent accomplishments from participating Medicaid-public health teams. The CDC 6|18 Initiative is a framework to guide Medicaid-public health collaboration.
State officials can align prevention strategies with value-based payment goals through a variety of mechanisms outlined in this brief, which draws from state-based 6|18 Initiative implementation efforts to help Medicaid and public health officials make the case for investing in prevention strategies and aligning these efforts to achieve state VBP goals.
Webinar discusses the status of state efforts to secure waivers to use federal Medicaid funding to provide care in Institutions for Mental Disease (IMD), including the requirements states must meet to secure an IMD waiver; the status of requests and approvals; and issues and opportunities arising as states pursue and increasingly implement the IMD waiver.
The Trump Administration is expanding the availability of alternatives to Affordable Care Act-compliant health insurance. Rules to expand association health plans and short-term limited duration health plans are imminent. This webinar explores what options states have to respond to these developments, featuring experts from Georgetown University’s Center for Health Insurance Reform.
Informed by more than 30 key informant interviews representing programs in 19 states and a small group convening, this report offers a national analysis to uncover opportunities to facilitate state-level, cross-sector strategies that promote health beyond the traditional health care levers.
This article uses data from the American Community Survey to examine changes in uninsurance and uninsurance disparities by race/ethnicity in Kentucky since the state’s implementation of the Affordable Care Act. It was published in the American Journal of Public Health.
This issue brief provides an overview of hospital global budgeting, which represents a middle-ground approach between the narrow bundling of services and global capitation that transfers higher levels of financial risk to a hospital. It provides a brief overview of hospital global budgets for state health officials interested in whether global budgets may be an option for their state.
States continue to identify and pursue strategies to further reduce the number of uninsured to make coverage more affordable for consumers and to improve access to care. This issue brief presents two possible models for a Medicaid buy-in program for states, and details the design considerations and authorities needed to implement each model.
We assessed rates of employer health insurance offer, take-up, and coverage in June 2013 and March 2017 among workers. Overall, offer rates remained stable, and take-up and coverage rates increased. In Medicaid expansion states, the share of workers with family incomes at or below 138 percent of the federal poverty level who had employer-based coverage held steady, while uninsurance rates declined.
This map tracks state Medicaid expansion decisions and approaches states are taking for expanding eligibility to 138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level. It also includes information on state legislative activity around Medicaid expansion, governors’ stances on the issue, and fiscal and demographic analyses from the state or other institutions. For states that are expanding Medicaid, but using an alternative to traditional expansion, the map also contains brief descriptions of these demonstration waivers.
In January 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services issued a new policy allowing states to implement work and community engagement requirements for certain Medicaid enrollees. States are permitted to seek federal approval to require non-elderly, non-pregnant, and non-disabled adults to participate in these types of activities to qualify for Medicaid or certain aspects of Medicaid coverage. This chart summarizes states’ pending and approved Section 1115 waivers, waiver renewals, and waiver amendments to implement work and community engagement requirements.
According to 2016 data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, 14.4 percent of children nationwide lived in working poor households. Of these, roughly one-third resided in ten states: Mississippi, New Mexico, Arizona, New York, Arkansas, Michigan, Nevada, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas.
SHADAC is highlighting state-specific findings from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) on measures that illustrate where states are closer to achieving a Culture of Health and where improvements can be made. As additional years of NCSH data are released, trends will be monitored in these indicators to track progress in developing a culture of health over time.
The six household surveys documented in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP).
This webinar untangles HHS's annual Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters and its many implications for states. The rule is a collection of policies governing the ACA’s marketplaces, insurance reforms, and premium stabilization programs. Speakers include Sabrina Corlette and Justin Giovannelli from Georgetown’s Center on Health Insurance Reforms, Joel Ario from Manatt Health, and Jason Levitis.
An annual assessment of the nation and each state’s day-to-day readiness for managing health emergencies improved significantly over the past five years, though deep regional differences remain. The 2018 National Health Security Preparedness Index found the United States scored a 7.1 on a 10-point scale for preparedness—nearly a 3 percent improvement over the last year, and a nearly 11 percent improvement since the Index began five years ago.
In this brief, we provide an overview of the lessons learned from work requirements for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or cash assistance) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps) and discuss the implications of introducing or expanding work requirements.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) made private nongroup health insurance more accessible to nonelderly adults with chronic conditions through the federal and state-based Marketplaces. As repeal of the ACA individual mandate takes effect in 2019, protecting coverage gains while stabilizing nongroup premiums may depend on state-level efforts to spread the risk of enrollees’ health care costs across a balanced insurance pool.
In Morrison County, Minnesota, an innovative state approach to improve population health is also helping combat the opioid crisis and save money. The Unity Accountable Community for Health (ACH) initiative has saved the state’s Medicaid program $3.8 million over three years by reducing claims for prescription opioid and related drugs.
The Profile of Virginia’s Uninsured provides a detailed picture of the Commonwealth’s uninsured using the 2016 American Community Survey. In 2016, 10.3 percent of Virginians under age 65 were uninsured. Most of these uninsured nonelderly Virginians had family incomes at or below 200 percent of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), and more than three-quarters were part of working families.
This article analyzes the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage for verterans in states that chose to expand Medicaid and in non-expansion states using data from the 2013 and 2014 American Community Survey. The analysis found a substantial 24 percent relative decline in the rate of uninsurance for U.S. veterans between 2013 and 2014. Coverage gains in rural areas were due to gains in Medicaid and individual market coverage. The increase in the insured rate was three times larger in Medicaid expansion states versus non-expansion states.
This paper examines a 2008 survey of adults enrolled in Minnesota's public health care programs to study the effect of barriers to health care access and the magnitude of those barriers on health care utilization. The authors found that multiple types of barriers are associated with delayed and foregone care, with system-level barriers and discrimination having the greatest effect on health care seeking behavior.
This analysis examines educational attainment and access to health care, looking at the extent to which adults (25 years and older) with different levels of education skipped needed care due to cost and did not have a personal doctor.
Although congressional efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA) did not succeed in 2017, the law continues to face an uncertain future. This brief examines insurers’ participation and pricing decisions for the 2018 and 2019 plan years through structured interviews with 10 insurance companies participating in the individual market in 28 states and the District of Columbia.
On February 20, 2018, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services released a proposed regulation that would increase the maximum length of short-term, limited-duration insurance policies to one year. The brief analyzes the national and state-specific effects of ending the individual mandate and loosening limits on short-term, limited-duration policies.
Six case studies on innovations in public health, including: Boston's PHC Bridges Sectors to Combat Overdoses; Chicago's DPH Sees the Future Thanks to Predictive Analytics; Hennepin County Uses Automation in Databook Development; Douglas' CHD Brings STD Testing to Youth-Friendly Locations; Portsmouth's HD Uses CASPER to Collect Neighborhood Data; and Check Out a Book, Check Out a Blood Pressure Kit.
In January 2018, CMS approved Kentucky’s Section 1115 Medicaid demonstration waiver, which allows the state to require some beneficiaries to participate in “community engagement” activities for at least 80 hours a month to retain their Medicaid coverage. This brief revises an earlier analysis on who could be affected by Kentucky’s Medicaid work requirements based on new information posted on Kentucky’s website.
This issue brief summarizes key features of the February 9, 2018 10-year CHIP extension. CHIP covers nearly 9 million children and is a key contributor to record-low levels of uninsurance among children.
The County Health Rankings is an annual county-by-county assessment that shows where we live matters to health. This year, we bring new analyses that show meaningful health gaps persist not only by place, but also among racial and ethnic groups. These gaps are largely the result of differences in opportunities in the places where we live. And, these differences disproportionately affect people of color.
The nation’s opioid epidemic claimed more than 42,000 lives in 2016, and more than 2 million people in the United States have an opioid use disorder (OUD). Yet, only 1 in 5 people suffering from an OUD receive treatment. In this issue brief, data from three states—New Hampshire, Ohio and West Virginia—highlight Medicaid’s role as the linchpin in states’ efforts to combat the opioid epidemic.
Many states continue to encounter challenges in stabilizing their individual health insurance markets, including large premium increases and declining insurer participation. One solution is a state-based reinsurance program similar to the federal program that reduced premiums by more than 10 percent per year from 2014 to 2016. The brief provides a roadmap of policy, program design, and financing considerations for states that are contemplating development of a state-based reinsurance program under 1332 waiver authority.
This article explores efforts by nine state Medicaid and public health agency teams to implement 6|18 interventions related to asthma control, tobacco cessation, and unintended pregnancy prevention. It was published in the Journal of Public Health Practice and Management and covers Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Rhode Island, and South Carolina.
On January 11, CMS released a State Medicaid Director letter providing guidance for states seeking 1115 waivers that condition Medicaid eligibility on work and community engagement, quickly followed by approval of Kentucky’s 1115 waivers that include these requirements. In this webinar, State Health and Value Strategies and Manatt Health review the new guidance, including key design parameters, budget neutrality requirements, and monitoring and evaluation criteria.
State Medicaid programs are increasingly requiring their Medicaid managed care organizations (MCO) to implement APMs. It is important for states to develop ways to ensure that their MCOs are complying with the APM requirements within their contract, and monitoring the progress and challenges with the implementation of APM strategies with Medicaid providers. This report focuses on different ways in which states may set standard APM definitions to track MCO progress toward meeting state APM goals, and support comparison of APM implementation within a state and nationally.
The Health Care Payment Learning and Action Network Alternative Payment Models Framework (the LAN APM Framework) is an increasingly common method being used by states to measure plan progress toward implementation of APMs. This report provides real-world examples of APMs within the LAN categories and can help states and other interested purchasers develop a common understanding of what types of payment models fit within the framework categories.
With effective repeal of the federal individual insurance mandate scheduled for 2019, many state policymakers are exploring ways to stabilize their insurance markets, including creating a state-based mandate similar to one in Massachusetts. This webinar includes a deep dive into Massachusetts’ mandate, and features a Maryland proposal to create an auto-enrollment process for individuals through its marketplace.
In response to President Trump’s October 12 executive order, the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services, Labor and Treasury have published proposed rules to expand the availability of health coverage sold through short-term, limited duration insurance (STLDI).
This report summarizes findings from the 2017 Minnesota Health Access Survey, focusing on trends in how Minnesotans obtained health insurance coverage, and provides an understanding of how the 2017 climate may have contributed to a contraction of coverage.
This eLearning series will teach you about: Innovation and Public Health; Foundational Public Health Services: An Overview; Connecting the Dots of Emerging National Public Health Initiatives; and Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change to Drive Innovation in Public Health.
This brief provides an analysis of legislation recently introduced in the U.S. Senate that would create a mechanism for states to offer their residents the opportunity to buy a Medicaid-based public insurance option.
On January 11, 2018, CMS released guidance for states seeking 1115 waivers that condition Medicaid eligibility on work and community engagement, quickly followed by approval of Kentucky’s 1115 waivers that include these requirements. Both the new guidance and recent waiver approval represent a significant departure from past Administrations’ positions. This webinar reviews the new guidance and discusses state legal, policy, and operational considerations.
This report examines the issue that with no individual mandate and expanded non-comprehensive coverage, the divisions between states will deepen, and market conditions will deteriorate for unsubsidized farmers and others seeking coverage in states that don’t protect their risk pool.
In response to President Trump’s October 12 executive order (EO), the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) published proposed rules to expand the availability of health coverage sold through associations to small businesses and self-employed individuals. The full brief provides state health officials with a detailed review of the content of the proposed rule and examines the implications for states.
Studies show that health disparities are often passed down from socially disadvantaged parents to their children and grandchildren. Poor children begin life on an uneven playing field; they face greater challenges than their healthier, more advantaged classmates; and they often struggle as adults to accumulate wealth to share with—and bequeath to—their children. State and federal health policymakers play a crucial role in breaking this cycle of poverty and inequity so that all can live healthy, prosperous lives.
This article details a qualitative analysis that (1) identified facilitators and barriers to utilizing a community health worker (CHW) model among patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) in Minnesota; and (2) defined roles played by the CHW workforce within the PCMH team. Four themes emerged as facilitators and barriers: the presence of leaders with knowledge of CHWs who championed the model; a clinic culture that favored piloting innovation vs. maintaining established care models; clinic prioritization of patients' nonmedical needs; and leadership perceptions of sustainability.
Prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, Minnesota's health insurance market was relatively high-functioning across indicators of health insurance access and quality of care, although the state faced common challenges in the area of health care costs. This report considers Minnesota's health insurance market before and after the passage of the ACA and the outlook for the state's market given the current policy environment.
RWJF’s SHVS together with experts from Manatt Health, host this webinar that highlights and defines potential policy options, including the “Medicaid Buy-in,” that states may consider to leverage Medicaid to achieve their goals with respect to coverage availability and affordability. Conditions that make each option more or less favorable for a state, and implementation issues or other considerations in play for states are discussed.
Uncertainty about the future of health insurance options and concern about the ability of Affordable Care Act (ACA) marketplaces to offer adequate competition and choice have spurred states to look for new coverage approaches. Innovative strategies states are proposing include allowing consumers to buy into state Medicaid programs and developing state-specific coverage options within the ACA’s framework.
As Congress barrels toward the end of the year, several bills are in play that will have major and almost immediate ramifications for health insurance markets. They include: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1); The Alexander-Murray insurance market stabilization bill; The Nelson-Collins reinsurance program bill; and the temporary elimination of the health insurance tax (H.R. 4620).
This webinar features the Urban Institute's Dr. Fred Blavin, whose SHARE-funded research asks how medical spending burdens for near-poor families in non-expansion states would change if the states were to expand Medicaid.
This report provides an overview of three areas of value-based innovation and then affords a deeper examination into specific examples of state employee purchaser activity in California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Washington.
More than 200 state health officials crowded into a NASHP annual conference session to learn about strategies to improve population health and reduce costs while simultaneously transforming their state’s health care finance and delivery models.
CMS released two informational bulletins detailing a new, streamlined approach for the review and management of Section 1115 demonstrations and state plan amendments and 1915 waivers. The streamlined approach may enhance states' ability to design innovative health care delivery initiatives in their Medicaid programs. These changes come at a critical time as states develop new approaches to reduce health care costs and stem the opioid epidemic.
HHS released proposed changes in its annual notice that governs standards for issuers and the health insurance marketplaces. The annual notice is one of the most significant tools the Administration wields in shaping the health insurance markets and this proposed notice carries significant implications for markets and states.
Understanding premium increases for individual market plans is more complicated this year. In many states, carriers attempted to recapture that lost revenue by increasing the premium of the silver plan relative to other metals. ‘Silver-loading’ gives subsidized non-cost-sharing reduction (CSR) consumers the opportunity to purchase a relatively more affordable bronze or gold plan.
With three states using Section 1332 waivers to help fund reinsurance programs for the 2018 plan year, many more state officials are considering the model for their state in future years. Having worked directly with the 2018 reinsurance states, State Health and Value Strategies presents a to-do list for states as they consider reinsurance for 2019.
States and the federal government have invested in programs that help low-income and vulnerable populations find housing and access health care and supportive services. However, those programs often remain siloed, with health and housing sectors frequently working independently toward similar goals. These resources support policymakers working to break down those silos to better deploy state resources through an aligned health and housing agenda.
As states transform their health systems, many are turning to community health workers (CHWs) to improve health outcomes and access to care, address social determinants of health, and help control costs of care. While state definitions vary, CHWs are typically frontline workers who are trusted members of and/or have a unique and intimate understanding of the communities they serve. These resources support state efforts to incorporate CHWs into their health and health equity improvement work.
The research included in this panel illustrates both the intended and unintended consequences of state policy decisions on a range of health systems outcomes and highlights the necessity of access to different types of federal surveys for the purposes of health policy evaluation. Federal survey data is especially critical when analyzing variation between states, as when comparing outcomes by Medicaid expansion status. As policy flexibility for states continues to grow, this ability to compare states to one another will continue to be essential.
This report examines how organizations participating in Transforming Complex Care (TCC), a multi-site national initiative funded by RWJF, are assessing and addressing social determinants of health for populations with complex needs. It reviews key considerations for organizations seeking to use SDOH data to improve patient care.
As the opioid and mental health crises continue to gain national attention, local leaders are stepping up to implement programs to address the prevalence and impact of untreated serious mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUD). This report explores how cities and counties have launched local initiatives to address the human and economic impact of untreated SMI and SUD.
This brief puts a state lens on emerging proposals in the ACA repeal and replace debate. Over the last decade, 21 states introduced legislation to sell across state lines, only five states enacted such laws, but no insurer has yet to offer.
This toolkit is designed to assist states interested in implementing value-based purchasing approaches with their Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs). Using a value-based purchasing approach can mean significant and ongoing changes for a state Medicaid agency and its MCOs.
Sens. Lamar Alexander (TN) and Patty Murray (WA) released a bipartisan bill designed to bring short-term stability to the health insurance market. While there are indications that Alexander and Murray secured the 60 votes needed for passage in the Senate, it faces an uncertain fate in the House and with the President.
The Administration signaled a willingness to give states more flexibility to address health and prevention in new and innovative ways under Section 1115 of the Social Security Act, allowing the Department of Health and Human Services to approve experimental and innovative projects that promote the goals of Medicaid. This comes at a pivotal time when many states are developing new ways to improve health care, reduce costs, and address health-related social needs such as housing.
The prospects for these new players reflect tensions for the market as a whole. Clearly the massive number of net exits signals a retrenchment by many market participants in 2018, resulting in shrinking of territorial footprints and outright withdrawal by large parts of the industry. For a variety of reasons, including attempts to repeal the ACA, the potential of the individual market has not yet been fully realized. Yet, it still remains the source of coverage for millions of people.
This report provides an annual update to comparisons of uninsurance estimates from four federal surveys:
-The American Community Survey (ACS)
-The Current Population Survey (CPS)
-The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Household Component (MEPS-HC)
-The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
This SHADAC chartbook uses data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) to highlight the experiences of private-sector workers with employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) from 2012 through 2016 at the national level and in the states. The ESI chartbook is accompanied by state-level fact sheets summarizing key ESI characteristics from 2012 to 2016.
While there are risks to the stability of their markets that states cannot well control, one important route to adverse market outcomes may be state policy decisions. There are frequent calls for more state flexibility, but these data suggest that the exercise of existing state flexibility is one way that states have visited a considerable amount of trouble upon their markets. Yet there is a hopeful note here as well, since this suggests that there are steps that states can take to improve their situation.
This report discusses the scope of state authority and tools available to ensure that consumers living within their borders benefit from the insurance protections promised under federal law. It also discusses specific statutory and administrative options for states in the event of selected possible federal administrative actions, including a: Rollback of the essential health benefits; relaxation of marketplace health plan oversight; re-definition of what constitutes minimum essential coverage; loosening of medical loss ratio standards; and an expansion of off-marketplace enrollment opportunities.
This map highlights state activity to integrate Community Health Workers (CHWs) into evolving health care systems in key areas such as financing, education and training, certification, and state definitions, roles and scope of practice. The map includes enacted state CHW legislation and provides links to state CHW associations and other leading organizations working on CHW issues in states.
This chart summarizes major provisions included in the 2010 Affordable Care Act, provisions included in the American Health Care Act passed by the House on May 4, 2017, as well as preliminary analysis of the Senate Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA) discussion draft as amended on June 26, 2017, and then revised on July 13, 2017 and July 20, 2017.
State policy makers are increasingly focused on social determinants of health (SDOH) because of the important influence of these determinants on health care outcomes and Medicaid spending. Social determinants include a broad array of social and environmental risk factors such as poverty, housing stability, early childhood education, access to primary care, access to healthy food, incarceration and discrimination. This report digs into opportunities that states have to account for SDOH in Medicaid programs.
State policy makers are increasingly focused on social determinants of health (SDOH) because of the important influence of these determinants on health care outcomes and Medicaid spending. This report digs into opportunities that states have to account for SDOH in Medicaid programs.
Low-income and vulnerable populations often need services and supports outside the scope of a single state agency to live healthy lives. In some states, braiding or blending funding streams lends programs a measure of flexibility, efficiency, and resiliency. Some states are considering whether innovative funding models could help them address the health-related social needs of vulnerable residents.
The Senate released two bills as part of its efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA): A revision to the Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA) eliminating the “Ted Cruz Amendment,” which provided funding to create coverage alternatives for high-risk individuals, and the Obamacare Repeal Reconciliation Act (ORRA), which would repeal many of the major provisions of the ACA within a two-year period, but does not offer plans to replace those provisions.
Mental health and substance use coverage could roll back to pre-Affordable Care Act (ACA) levels if the American Health Care Act (AHCA) becomes law. Analysis finds the AHCA could limit access to mental health treatment.
The Partnership for Healthy Outcomes set out to capture and analyze the lessons emerging in this dynamic space, as organizations explore partnerships to achieve greater outcomes together than they could on their own. A national request for information asked specifically about partnerships between health care organizations and CBOs. It produced a wealth of data from a wide range of partners in a wide variety of partnerships.
CMS has signaled a willingness to evaluate new types of Medicaid proposals from states, such as Medicaid waiver applications that include programs to connect individuals to employment or incorporate features of private market coverage. In response to CMS’ letter, some states have developed proposals that include these types of requirements for certain individuals covered by the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion—and a few states are seeking similar changes for their non-Medicaid expansion populations.
This blog examines three potential changes to state public health programs, based on insights in the proposed White House budget for FY 2018. The budget is expected to change in Congress; however, it is important for states to consider what the administration’s priorities could mean for public health. It proposes some targeted infrastructure investments and proposes to reduce funding for public health infrastructure and services.
State health policymakers are increasingly acknowledging housing as a key component of health and are weaving housing strategies into their broader health system transformations. States have powerful levers at their disposal and a range of funding streams that they can bring to bear to support integrated health and housing, while local public housing authorities also play a large role in community efforts to house vulnerable, low-income households.
This webinar profiles Louisiana’s Permanent Supportive Housing program and Virginia’s Children’s Services Act, and examines their use of blended or braided funding to help meet the health-related social needs of vulnerable low-income populations.
This report examines the United States opioid epidemic at the state-level, analyzing trends in overdose deaths from heroin and other opioids, such as prescription painkillers. Using vital statistics data, it looks at which states have the highest rates of opioid-related deaths and which have experienced the largest increases in death rates.
Under the authority of Section 1115 demonstrations, some states have implemented DSRIP programs to improve care, improve health, and lower costs. DSRIP programs restructure Medicaid funding into a pay-for-performance arrangement in which providers earn incentive payments outside of capitation rates for meeting certain metrics or milestones based on state-specific needs and goals, which are used to measure success.
This report explores Louisiana’s permanent supportive housing program. The program, administered jointly by the state’s Medicaid agency and housing authority, is a cross-agency partnership that braids funding to serve vulnerable cross-disability populations, address homelessness, reduce institutionalizations, and save money for the state.
Before the ACA’s implementation, nearly one million veterans—almost one in 10—were uninsured. By 2015, the number of uninsured veterans fell to 552,000. Veterans uninsurance reduced by nearly 40 percent between 2013 and 2015 under the Affordable Care Act.
Medicaid can play a unique and critical role in responding to public health emergencies and health crises. This brief explores the role Medicaid has played in responding to events such as the opioid and HIV/AIDS epidemics, the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, the Flint, Michigan lead contamination crisis, and Hurricane Katrina.
Driven to improve care coordination and contain costs by moving away from a volume-based payment model, an increasing number of states are implementing risk-based managed care programs to deliver long-term services and supports (LTSS). As the primary payer for LTSS, state Medicaid programs have a significant interest in ensuring that entities with which they contract deliver high quality and cost-effective care to members. This report identifies ways states can learn from value-based payment models being applied elsewhere to create more accountability for the quality and cost of LTSS.
The AHCA, which proposes to repeal and replace the ACA, would dismantle the Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF). States received over $625 million from the PPHF in fiscal year 2016, and stand to lose more than $3 billion over five years if it is repealed. The bill would repeal all new appropriations for the PPHF starting in fiscal year 2019, and rescind any funds left over at the end of 2018.
HHS Secretary Tom Price issued a letter to governors encouraging them to take advantage of Sec. 1332 State Innovation Waivers under the Affordable Care Act and cited Alaska‘s request as an example. Alaska’s waiver seeks federal funds to support a reinsurance plan to stabilize its individual insurance market.
This chart summarizes how the American Health Care Act, passed out of House committees the day before, differed from the Affordable Care Act. State leaders, representing the diversity of states and breadth of state health policy agencies and officials, met at a summit to discuss those changes and how they might affect states.
Congressional action to repeal and replace the ACA is on the fast track. The administration and GOP leaders have outlined a three-pronged effort to reform healthcare beginning with passage of the American Health Care Act (AHCA). Congress released Manager’s Amendments to the AHCA, inclusive of a series of policy and technical changes to the bill. Here is a full statutory text of policy and technical amendments.
While the focus of debate regarding repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been on Marketplaces and the Medicaid expansion, myriad other provisions of the ACA are at risk of repeal—including those that streamline Medicaid eligibility and enrollment systems and implement a national, simplified standard for income eligibility. As of January 2016, 37 states are able to complete an eligibility determination in real time, defined as less than 24 hours, and among these, 11 states report that at least half of their applicants receive an eligibility determination in real time. The future of the ACA’s streamlined eligibility and enrollment-related provisions and the system improvements states have invested in to implement them are the subject of this issue brief.
State and federal policymakers increasingly acknowledge that health is difficult to achieve and maintain for people without a stable home. Numerous studies show that housing and housing supports can help vulnerable populations improve and maintain health while lowering hospital and other costs for state and local governments. This commentary outlines three tips for state policymakers.
Recent state waivers can inform the question of whether and how low-income individuals could benefit from health savings accounts (HSAs) with high-deductible health plans. State experiences incorporating health savings accounts into Medicaid can be instructive, as policymakers consider the role of HSAs in proposed health care reforms. This brief looks at health savings and similar accounts in Michigan and Indiana.
CHIP can provide critical financial support to states as they seek to implement cost-effective lead abatement activities to protect children. This issue brief describes the CHIP State Plan option, which does not require a waiver, and the opportunity it provides for states to make significant tangible reductions in lead exposure and improvements to children’s health. The brief includes specific examples in case studies from Michigan and Maryland.
When it comes to prevention, identification, and mitigation of public health crises, states are at the forefront. These crises require a multi-sector state agency approach as often they disproportionally impact disadvantaged communities and are linked with challenging social determinants of health.
The “Buying Value Measure Selection Tool” was developed to assist state agencies, private purchasers and other stakeholders in creating aligned measure sets, and was first released in 2014. This webinar explains this tool and recent updates for state officials and other stakeholders involved in developing and maintaining aligned quality measure sets for health care entities and programs including for health plans, accountable care organizations, and patient-centered medical homes. This webinar presents strategies for selecting measures and reveals an updated version of the tool.
Congress began its ACA repeal effort and evolving replacement options are receiving considerable attention. NASHP is tracking issues that appear in multiple proposals and will provide state perspectives, including: How might they impact states? What might they cost? Have they been tried before in states and what did we learn from past initiatives?
Health care leaders are well-positioned to use cross-sector approaches to drive improvements in population health in collaboration with state leaders. Through the use of joint measurement and accountability tools, policymakers can help to improve health outcomes to an extent not possible through isolated, medical-centric efforts. This report outlines how state agencies can use shared measurement and joint accountability across sectors as tools for improving population health outcomes.
This chart provides an overview of ACA provisions and snapshot of the implications for states if the ACA is repealed. States are the primary regulator of insurance and as such had laws in place prior to the enactment of ACA. Some states repealed those laws and replaced them with ACA provisions, while other states revised their laws but left other old, preempted laws on the books.
This report describes six potential integration strategies that state agencies might employ to better integrate social services and health care delivery. For each, the report contains examples from several states that have utilized these strategies in their own efforts to increase integration.
High-profile diseases such as Ebola and Zika grab headlines, but state health policymakers know that emergency preparedness begins long before the first news stories—or symptoms—appear. At the nexus of federal policy and local concern, state health policymakers are well-positioned to lead prior to, and during, health emergencies.
Increasingly, health departments are serving as leaders in communities to address the root causes of health inequities. This requires changing systems and policies, and working with non-traditional partners to ensure that all people have the opportunity to attain their highest level of health. On December 12, 2016, PHNCI explored the stories of two health departments working to transform communities such that zip codes do not dictate health outcomes.
Stark health disparities make it difficult to move the needle on health outcomes and costs and reflect the fact that states face a variety of political and resource constraints when it comes to implementing health equity initiatives. While disparities still exist, all states have opportunities to advance health equity through a range of approaches, from incremental targeted programs to integration in broad health reform initiatives.
Leaders from across state governments, in both the executive and legislative branches, convened to help identify cross-cutting issues that provide opportunities to advance health reform and transform our health system to one that lowers cost, rewards value, and improves health. This brief presents key opportunities before the new administration that could maintain and accelerate state-based reforms.
To help better prevent and control costly conditions such as chronic diseases and break the cycle of poor health, states are experimenting with mechanisms to incentivize healthy behaviors and personal responsibility for wellness. In October 2016, leaders from Connecticut, Idaho, and Indiana shared their experiences along with the unique approaches their states are taking to address this issue.
State agencies across the country, from Medicaid to public health, to social services and corrections, are deeply engaged in multi-sector initiatives to reduce infant mortality. And for good reason: the United States ranks 25th among industrialized countries in infant mortality with a disproportionate number of being African Americans.
This report is a detailed analysis of state rankings on 39 health outcomes, and correlations between those health outcomes and 123 determinants of health spanning five domains: health care, health behaviors, social and economic factors, the physical and social environment, and public policies and spending.
As public health departments adapt to meet the growing and changing needs of their communities, several national initiatives emerged to serve as pathways for health departments to be conveners, providers, and strategists to improve health and well-being. PHNCI, a division of the PHAB, was created to act as a national convener to incubate and share innovative ideas that help improve public health practice and serves as the hub for 21st century health. As part of PHNCI’s aim to provide strategic coordination at the national level, this brief provides an overview of national initiatives and their connections to accreditation.
In an era of public health system transformation, public health departments around the nation are adapting — or “modernizing” — to meet the growing and changing needs of their communities. To help states navigate the challenges inherent in public health system transformation, three grantee states are participating in a learning community supported by PHNCI. The three states — Ohio, Oregon and Washington — are working to test and implement the systems transformations required to provide the foundational public health services statewide and ensure that all residents have equitable access to public health.
In order to assist states in the facilitation of Medicaid enrollment and renewal for eligible SNAP participants, this webinar presents some of the necessary considerations for leveraging these data for enrollment purposes.
Health coverage transitions—sometimes referred to as churn—have always existed to some degree, but with the Affordable Care Act there are additional possibilities for churning to occur across multiple coverage sources. This report examines current efforts in some states to measure these coverage transitions and provides broader context on the issue of churn.
PHAB is the nonprofit accrediting body for Tribal, state, local, and territorial public health departments. In 2015, PHAB launched PHNCI, a new division established to identify, implement, and spread innovations in public health practice to help meet the health challenges of the 21st century in communities nationwide. This report explains the alignment between version 1.5 of the accreditation standards and measures and version 1.0 of the foundational capabilities as part of the foundational public health services framework.
This article examines changes to health insurance coverage and access to health care among children, adolescents, and young adults since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act using data from the National Health Interview Survey. The authors found significant improvements in coverage among children, adolescents, and young adults since 2010, along with some gains in access.
This report identifies methodological challenges in measuring cost of care performance for organizations with a small number of attributed patients, and provides concrete strategies and resources for state purchasers to address this methodological challenge when evaluating PCMH and ACO cost performance and applying financial incentives and disincentives.
Changes in population-based payment models in health care delivery have spurred enhanced efforts toward closer integration between state purchasers of health care and state, county, and local public health officials. This issue brief investigates approaches that state agencies might employ in order to better integrate public health and health care delivery as a means of improving health and the value of health care, and it is organized according to seven features of integration. The issue brief is accompanied by three case studies providing additional detail to some of the examples cited in the brief.
In this brief, we explore two revenue sources states may deploy to fund the non-federal share of expansion: provider assessments and provider donations. Both are authorized by federal law and both have been used by states in connection with expansion.
This issue brief examines seven safety-net ACOs across five states to understand their origins, organization, characteristics and functions and to identify federal and state policy questions associated with their emergence. The issue brief identifies both challenges facing safety-net provider ACO aspirants and state strategies to support safety-net provider development of ACOs.
This report identifies key lessons from ACO activities across the country to date. It examines how ACOs can build upon these initial successes and informs policymakers, researchers, and foundations about key considerations to further the development of effective ACO approaches across the health care market.
As state Medicaid programs increase their focus on value-based payment, it is important to consider how FQHCs may participate in payment reform strategies. Through their focus on improved health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and access to appropriate care, alternative payment methodologies can benefit FQHCs, the state purchaser, and most importantly Medicaid beneficiaries. This brief describes a number of state-level payment reform strategies that include FQHCs and offers strategies and considerations for states and FQHCs alike.
This report stems from technical assistance provided to California’s Department of Health Care Services (DHCS). The technical expert facilitated webinars and meetings with DHCS staff and medical directors of contracted MCOs, in order to share information about housing resources and emerging practices for improving care and achieving savings by linking more Medicaid beneficiaries with permanent supportive housing.